¹ See http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Disability/SRDisabilities/Pages/BioethicsDisabilities.aspx.
² See http://www.ohchr.org/en/issues/disability/srdisabilities/pages/reports.aspx
³ See http://www.un.org/en/content/disabilitystrategy/
4 See Ron Amundson, “Disability, ideology, and quality of life: a bias in biomedical ethics”, in Quality of Life and Human Difference, David Wasserman, Jerome Bickenbach and Robert Wachbroit, eds., (New York, Cambridge University Press, May 2005).
5 See David Pfeiffer, “Eugenics and disability discrimination”, Disability & Society, vol. 9, No. 4 (1994); Daniel J. Kevles, “Eugenics and human rights”, BMJ, vol. 319 (7207) (August 1999); and Ayça Alemdaroğlu, “Eugenics, modernity and nationalism” in Social Histories of Disability and Deformity, David M. Turner and Kevin Stagg, eds. (Abingdon, Oxon, Routledge, 2006).
6 See Michael Robertson, Astrid Ley and Edwina Light, The First into the Dark: the Nazi Persecution of the Disabled (London, Ubiquity Press (UTS ePress), 2019).
7 See Tom Shakespeare, “Nasty, brutish, and short? On the predicament of disability and embodiment” in Disability and the Good Human Life, Jerome Bickenbach, Franziska Felder and Barbara Schmitz, eds. (New York, Cambridge University Press, 2013).
8 See Sharanjit Uppal, “Impact of the timing, type and severity of disability on the subjective wellbeing of individuals with disabilities”, Social Science & Medicine, vol. 63, No. 2 (July 2006).
9 See Ron Amundson, “Quality of life, disability, and hedonic psychology”, Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, vol. 40, No. 4 (November 2010); Bernd Fellinghauer and others, “Explaining the disability paradox: a cross-sectional analysis of the Swiss general population”, BMC Public Health, vol. 12 (August 2012); and Carli Friedman and Laura VanPuymbrouck, “The impact of people with disabilities choosing their services on quality of life outcomes”, Disability and Health Journal, vol. 12, No. 2 (April 2019).
10 See Ron Amundson, “Quality of life, disability, and hedonic psychology”.
11 Alicia Ouellette, Bioethics and Disability. Towards a Disability-Conscious Bioethics (New York, Cambridge University Press, 2011).
12 See Paula Siverino Bavio, “Una bioética en clave latinoamericana: aportes de la Declaración Universal sobre bioética y derechos humanos de UNESCO”, Derecho PUCP, vol. 63 (2009).
13 See Robert Sparrow, “A not-so-new eugenics. Harris and Savulescu on human enhancement”, Hastings Center Report, vol. 41, No. 1 (January-February 2011); and Nicholas Agar, Liberal Eugenics. In Defence of Human Enhancement (Oxford, Blackwell, 2004).
14 See Julian Savulescu, “Procreative beneficence: why we should select the best children”, Bioethics, vol. 15, No. 5–6; and Peter Singer, Practical Ethics, 2nd ed. (New York, Cambridge University Press, 1993).
15 See Nuffield Council on Bioethics, “Genome editing and human reproduction: social and ethical issues”, (July 2018).
16 See Christopher Newell, “Disability, bioethics, and rejected knowledge”, Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, vol. 31, No. 3 (2006).
18 See Jackie Leach Scully, Disability Bioethics: Moral Bodies, Moral Difference (Lanham, Maryland, Rowman and Littlefield, 2008).
19 See Alicia Ouellette, Bioethics and Disability. Towards a Disability-Conscious Bioethics.
20 See Theresia Degener, “Disability in a human rights context”, Laws, vol. 5, No. 3 (2016).
21 See Susan E. Levy and Susan L. Hyman, “Complementary and alternative medicine treatments for children with autism spectrum disorders”, Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 24, No. 1 (2015).
22 See Maria Loane and others, “Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe: impact of maternal age and prenatal screening”, European Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 21, No. 1 (January 2013).
23 See Elizabeth R. Schiltz, “Finding common ground in the disability rights critiques of selective abortions” in In Search of Common Ground on Abortion: From Culture War to Reproductive Justice, Robin West, Justin Murray and Meredith Esser, eds. (Farnham, Surrey, Ashgate, 2014).
24 See Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, joint statement (29 August 2018), available from www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/CRPD/Pages/CRPDStatements.aspx.
25 See World Health Organization, “Preventing gender-biased sex selection: an interagency statement. OHCHR, UNFPA, UNICEF, UN Women and WHO” (2011).
26 See Nuffield Council on Bioethics, “Genome editing and human reproduction: social and ethical issues”.
²⁷ See National Council on Disability, Organ Transplant Discrimination against People with Disabilities: Part of the Bioethics and Disability Series (Washington, D.C., September 2019).
²⁸ See Katherine L. Cahn-Fuller and Brendan Parent, “Transplant eligibility for patients with affective and psychotic disorders: a review of practices and a call for justice”, BMC Medical Ethics, vol. 18 (2017); Alexander N. Goel and others, “Heart transplantation in children with intellectual disability: an analysis of the UNOS database”, Pediatric transplantation, vol. 21, No. 2 (March 2017).
²⁹ See John M. Luce and Douglas B. White, “The pressure to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining therapy from critically ill patients in the United States, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 175, No. 11 (June 2007).
³⁰ See Maneka A. Braganza, Alastair J. Glossop and Vandana A. Vora, “Treatment withdrawal and endof-life care in the intensive care unit”, BJA Education, vol. 17, No. 12 (December 2017).
³¹ See Dominic Wilkinson, Stavros Petrou, Julian Savulescu, “Expensive care? Resource-based thresholds for potentially inappropriate treatment in intensive care”, Monash Bioethics Review, vol. 35, Nos. 1–4 (July 2018).
³⁶ See Marilyn Golden, “Why assisted suicide must not be legalized”, Disability Rights Education & Defense Fund, available from https://dredf.org/public-policy/assisted-suicide/why-assisted-suicidemust-not-be-legalized-2.
³⁷ See Gerard Quinn and Anna Arstein-Kerslake, “Restoring the ‘human’ in ‘human rights’: personhood and doctrinal innovation in the UN disability convention” in The Cambridge Companion to Human Rights Law, Conor Gearty and Costas Douzinas, eds. (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2012).
³⁸ Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, general comment No. 6 (2018) on equality and non-discrimination, para. 6.
³⁹ See Gerard Quinn and Theresia Degener, Human Rights and Disability. The Current Use and Future Potential of United Nations Human Rights Instruments in the Context of Disability (Geneva, United Nations Press, 2002).
⁴⁰ See Theresia Degener, “Disability in a human rights context”, p. 8.
⁴¹ John Tobin and Jonathan Todres, “Article 8. The right to preservation of a child’s identity” in The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. A Commentary, John Tobin, ed. (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2019).
⁴³ Human Rights Committee, general comment No. 36 (2018) on the right to life (replacing general comment Nos. 6 and 14), para. 3.
⁴⁴ Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, general comment No. 1 (2014) on equal recognition before the law, para. 8.
⁴⁵ See Tina Minkowitz, “A response to the report by Juan E. Méndez, Special Rapporteur on Torture, dealing with torture in the context of health care, as it pertains to nonconsensual psychiatric interventions” in Torture in Healthcare Settings: Reflections on the Special Rapporteur on Torture’s 2013 Thematic Report (Washington, D.C., Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, 2014).
⁴⁶ Human Rights Committee, general comment No. 35 (2014) on liberty and security of person, para. 9.
⁴⁷ See daily summary of discussions at the fifth session of the Ad Hoc Committee on a Comprehensive and Integral International Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities, 28 January 2005.
⁴⁸ Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, general comment No. 1, para. 41.
⁴⁹ See Catherine Campbell and Harriet Deacon, “Unravelling the contexts of stigma: from internalisation to resistance to change”, Journal of Community and Applied Psychology, vol. 16, No. 6 (November–December 2006).
⁵⁰ See Wim H. van Brake and others, “Out of the silos: identifying cross-cutting features of healthrelated stigma to advance measurement and intervention”, BMC Medicine, vol. 17 (February 2019).
⁵¹ See Monica E. Kolodziej and Blair T. Johnson, “Interpersonal contact and acceptance of persons with psychiatric disorders: a research synthesis”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 64, No. 6 (December 1996); and Heather Stuart, “Reducing the stigma of mental illness”, Global Mental Health, vol. 3 (2016).
⁵² Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, general comment No. 4 (2016) on the right to inclusive education, para. 10.
⁵³ See World Health Organization and World Bank, World Report on Disability (2011), p. 6.
⁵⁴ See Elizabeth R. Schiltz, “Finding common ground in the disability rights critiques of selective abortions”, p. 140.
⁵⁵ See www.downs-syndrome.org.uk/about/campaigns/tell-it-right start-it-right/.
⁵⁶ Committee on the Rights of the Child, general comment No. 13 (2011) on the right of the child to freedom from all forms of violence, para. 61.
⁵⁷ Committee against Torture, general comment No. 3 (2012) on the implementation of article 14 of the Convention.
⁵⁸ See A/HRC/37/56, para. 44.
⁵⁹ Tom Shakespeare, Disability Rights and Wrongs (Abingdon, Oxon, Routledge, 2006), p. 169.