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co-prosecution action

(Sections 395 ff. of the German Code of Criminal Procedure (StPO))
The co-prosecution action under German law entitles a certain group of private individuals (e. g. victims of certain criminal offences) to join - as a co-prosecutor - in the criminal proceedings initiated by the public prosecutor. They are entitled to initiate certain procedural measures (e. g. motions for the admission of evidence). Persons affected by human trafficking are entitled to act as co-prosecutors.

collective bargaining agreement, union wage

Collective bargaining agreements are agreements concluded between employers and labour unions (parties to the collective bargaining agreement) stipulating the conditions of employment contracts. In terms of subject matter, a distinction is drawn between collective bargaining agreements for basic working conditions and collective bargaining agreements for wages. Employers and employees are bound by the terms of a collective bargaining agreement if the employees and the employers are each organized as a collectively bargaining party or if the collective bargaining agreement has been declared universally binding. A union wage, i. e. a collectively bargained for wage, is the wage stipulated in a collective bargaining agreement.

contracting states

Contracting states are those states that have endorsed an international treaty through their ratification of it.

control over a prostitute

(Section 181a of the German Criminal Code (StGB))
The elements of the criminal offence of exercising control over a prostitute are satisfied if the perpetrator exploits a person who is practicing prostitution, surveils such person while he respectively she is practicing prostitution, or dictates to such person the terms of his respectively her working conditions. Because prostitution is legal in Germany and because it can be exercised on the basis of a dependent employment relationship (i. e. a regular employer/employee relationship), such acts must go beyond the general right of an employer to issue instructions to his/her employees and must be such that the person is being kept in a state of dependency.


Also: human rights conventions, human rights contracts, human rights treaties, human rights covenants.
There are currently nine basic international UN-human rights conventions. These conventions are binding pursuant to public international law on all contracting states. This distinguishes them from the majority of the declarations of the United Nations. There are also binding conventions at the regional level, such as the European Convention on Human Rights.

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