31. While the extra cost of disability varies greatly depending on the availability and financial accessibility of goods and services,²⁸ researchers have calculated that it can amount to almost 50 per cent of an individual’s income.²⁹ A recent study on older persons with disabilities estimates that, on average, disability costs are approximately 65 per cent higher than the net weekly pre-disability household income.³⁰ In addition, the economic cost of living with a disability includes foregone benefits or opportunity costs (e.g., lost income of individuals with disabilities or of family members who cannot work, or who work less, if the household includes one or more persons with disabilities),³¹ the impact of which depends on many factors, including the type of impairment, the household’s socioeconomic status, the individual’s work status and the policy context (e.g., the existence of disability benefits).
²⁸ S. Mitra, A. Posarac and B. Vick, see note 13.
²⁹ J. Cullinan, B. Gannon and S. Lyons, Estimating the Extra Cost of Living for People with Disabilities, in Health Economics, vol. 20 (5) (2011); P. Saunders, “The cost of disability and the incidence of poverty”, Discussion Paper No. 147, Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales, 2006; Prashant Loyalka and others, “The costs of disability in China”, in Demography, 51 (1) (2014).
³⁰ M. Morciano, R. Hancock and S. Pudney, “Disability costs and equivalence scales in the older population”, ISER Working Paper Series, No. 2012-09 (University of Essex, Institute for Social and Economic Research, April 2012).
³¹ M. Palmer and others, “The Economic Lives of People with Disabilities in Vietnam” (2015), available from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0133623