¹ See www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Disability/SRDisabilities/Pages/StandardOHealth.aspx
² See D. Bloom and D. Canning, Population Health and Economic Growth (Commission on Growth and Development, 2008). Available at siteresources.worldbank.org EXTPREMNET/Resources/489960-1338997241035/Growth_Commission_Working_Paper_24_ Population_Health_Economic_Growth.pdf
³ World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank, World Report on Disability (2011), pp. 53–60.
⁴ J. Bircher and E.G. Hahn, “Understanding the nature of health: new perspectives for medicine and public health. Improved wellbeing at lower costs”, F1000Research 5:167 (2016). Available at https://f1000research.com/articles/5-167/v1.
⁵ The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, adopted at the First International Conference on Health Promotion, held in Ottawa on 21 November 1986.
⁶ B. Ingstad and S. R. Whyte (eds.), Disability and Culture (University of California Press, 1995).
⁷ Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, general comment No. 6 (2018) (CRPD/C/GC/6), para. 8.
⁸ See Universal Declaration on Human Rights (art. 25.1), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (art. 12), International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (art. 5 (e) (iv)), Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (arts. 11.1 (f) and 12), Convention on the Rights of the Child (art. 24), International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (arts. 28, 43.1 (e), and 45.1 (c)), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (art. 25), European Social Charter (Revised) (art. 11), Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (art. 10) and African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (art. 16).
⁹ Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, general comment No. 14 (2000) (E/C.12/2000/4), para. 8.
¹⁰ Ibid., para. 11.
¹² G. Quinn and T. Degener, “Human rights and disability: the current use and future potential of United Nations human rights instruments in the context of disability” (Geneva, OHCHR, 2002). Available at www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/HRDisabilityen.pdf.
¹³ United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 2515, No. 44910.
¹⁴ International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (art. 7), Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (arts. 5 and 6) and Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine (art. 5). The right to free and informed consent has also been interpreted to be part of the right to security of the person, the right to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment or punishment, the right to privacy and the right to the highest attainable standard of health.
¹⁵ Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, general comment No. 1 (2014) (CRPD/C/GC/1), para. 41.
¹⁷ Ibid., para. 21.
¹⁸ Habilitation and rehabilitation describe a broad range of responses to enable persons with disabilities to attain and maintain maximum independence, full physical, mental, social and vocational ability and full inclusion and participation in all aspects of life. Habilitation refers to services targeting those who acquire impairments congenitally or early in life, whereas rehabilitation refers to services for those who acquire an impairment later in life.
¹⁹ Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, general comment No. 14 (2000) (E/C.12/2000/4), para. 43.
²⁰ Ibid., paras. 31 and 32.
²¹ Ibid., para. 30.
²² Health Quality Improvement Partnership, The Learning Disabilities Mortality Review, annual report 2017.
²³ S. Saha, D. Chant and J. McGrath, “A systematic review of mortality in schizophrenia: is the differential mortality gap worsening over time?”, Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 64, No. 10 (2007), pp. 1123–1131.
²⁴ WHO and World Bank, World Report on Disability (2011), pp. 60–62.
²⁵ M. A. McColl, A. Jarzynowska and S.E.D. Shortt, “Unmet health care needs of people with disabilities: population level evidence”, Disability and Society, vol. 25, No. 2 (2010), pp. 205–218.
²⁶ WHO and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), “Early childhood development and disability: a discussion paper” (2012), p. 17.
²⁷ T. Shakespeare, T. Bright and H. Kuper, “Access to health for persons with disabilities”, discussion paper commissioned by the Special rapporteur on the rights of persons with disabilities (2018), pp. 21–26. Available at http://disabilitycentre.lshtm.ac.uk/resources/.
²⁸ Ibid, p. 24.
²⁹ WHO, Assistive technology fact sheet (18 May 2018), www.who.int/en/news-room/factsheets/detail/assistive-technology.
³⁰ WHO, Congenital anomalies fact sheet (7 September 2016), www.who.int/news-room/factsheets/detail/congenital-anomalies.
³¹ European Commission, Rare diseases — a major unmet medical need (2017), p. 9.
³² UNICEF, “Disability prevention efforts and disability rights: finding common ground on immunization efforts”, working paper, available at www.unicef.org/disabilities/files/ UNICEF_Immunization_and_Disability_Paper_FINAL.pdf.
³³ J. Angus, L. Seto, N. Barry et al., “Access to cancer screening for women with mobility disabilities”, Journal of Cancer Education, vol. 27, No. 1 (March 2012), pp. 75–82; K. Peters and A. Cotton, “Barriers to breast cancer screening in Australia: experiences of women with physical disabilities”, Journal of Clinical Nursing, vol. 24, Nos. 3 and 4 (March 2012), pp. 563–72.
³⁴ J. H. Rimmer, “Health promotion for people with disabilities: the emerging paradigm shift from disability prevention to prevention of secondary conditions ”, Physical Therapy, vol. 79, No. 5 (1 May 1999), pp. 495–502.
³⁵ S. H. Braathen, P. Rohleder and G. Azalde, Sexual and reproductive health and rights of girls with disabilities: a review of the literature (SINTEF, 2017), pp. 13–15. Available from www.sintef.no.
³⁶ Ibid., pp. 13–14.
³⁷ Ibid., p. 16.
³⁸ World Dental Federation, “Oral health and dental care of people with disabilities”, policy statement adopted by the FDI General Assembly, Poznań, Poland, September 2016.
³⁹ D. Faulks and others, “The value of education in special care dentistry as a means of reducing inequalities in oral health”, European Journal of Dental Education, vol. 16 (2012), pp. 195–201.
⁴¹ WHO, Mental Health Atlas 2014 (Geneva, 2015), p. 31.
⁴² T. Shakespeare, T. Bright and H. Kuper, “Access to health for persons with disabilities” (note 27 above), p. 8.
⁴⁴ UNICEF, “Disability prevention efforts and disability rights” (note 32 above), p. 3.
⁴⁵ D. Ben-Zeev, M. A. Young and P. W. Corrigan, “DSM-V and the stigma of mental illness”, Journal of Mental Health, vol. 19, No. 4 (2010), pp. 318–27.
⁴⁶ D. A. Pettitt and others, “The limitations of QALY: a literature review”, Journal of Stem Cell Research and Therapy, vol. 6, No. 4 (2016), p. 4; R. Parks, “The rise, critique and persistence of the DALY in global health”, The Journal of Global Health (1 April 2014), available at www.ghjournal.org/the-rise-critique-and-persistence-of-the-daly-in-global-health/.
⁴⁷ WHO, “The need to scale up rehabilitation”, available at www.who.int/disabilities/care/ NeedToScaleUpRehab.pdf?ua=1.
⁴⁸ WHO and World Bank, World Report on Disability (2011), p. 66.
⁵⁰ Ibid., p. 67.
⁵¹ Y. Bat-Chava, D. Martin, and J. G. Kosciw, “Barriers to HIV/AIDS knowledge and prevention among deaf and hard of hearing people”, AIDS Care, vol. 17, No. 5 (2005), pp. 623–634.
⁵² K. A. Gerhart and others, “Quality of life following spinal cord injury: knowledge and attitudes of emergency care providers”, Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 23, No. 4 (1994), pp. 807–812.
⁵³ A. Molodynsky, J. Rugkåsa, and T. Burns, Coercion in Community Mental Health Care: International Perspectives (Oxford University Press, 2016).
⁵⁴ H. J. Salize and H. Dressing, “Epidemiology of involuntary placement of mentally ill people across the European Union”, British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 184, No. 2 (February 2004), pp. 163–168; United Kingdom Department of Health and Social Care, “The independent review of the Mental Health Act”, interim report, May 2018.
⁵⁷ Ibid, p. 10.
⁵⁸ European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), Inequalities and multiple discrimination in access to and quality of healthcare (2013), pp. 47–51.
⁵⁹ D. L. Smith, “Disparities in health care access for women with disabilities in the United States from the 2006 National Health Interview Survey”, Disability and Health Journal, vol. 1, No. 2 (2008), pp. 79–88; D. Sakellariou and E. S. Rotarou, “Access to healthcare for men and women with disabilities in the UK: secondary analysis of cross-sectional data”, BMJ Open, vol. 7, No. 8 (2017).
⁶⁰ K. Maclean, “The impact of institutionalization on child development”, Development and Psychopathology, vol. 15, No. 4 (2003), pp. 853–884; F. D. Wolinsky and others, “The risk of nursing home placement and subsequent death among older adults”, Journal of Gerontology, vol. 47, No. 4 (1992), pp. 173–182.
⁶¹ Committee on the Rights of the Child, general comment No. 15 (2013) (CRC/C/GC/15), para. 31.
⁶² WHO and UNICEF, “Early childhood development and disability: a discussion paper”, (2012) p. 22.
⁶³ WHO, “Rehabilitation 2030: a call for action”, meeting report, 2017, available at www.who.int/ disabilities/care/Rehab2030MeetingReport2.pdf?ua=1.
⁶⁴ For further guidance on how to ensure access to assistive devices and technologies, see A/71/314.
⁶⁵ V. Iemmi and others, “Community-based rehabilitation for people with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review”, Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2015. Available from https://campbellcollaboration.org/.
⁶⁶ States should develop a list of essential assistive products according to their national needs and available resources on the basis of the WHO priority assistive products list (see A/71/314).
⁶⁷ Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, general comment No. 2 (2014) (CRPD/C/GC/2), para. 40.
⁶⁸ Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, general comment No. 14 (2000) (E/C.12/2000/4), para. 59.