Migration movements within and between states increasingly shape modern societies. These movements lead to a number of diverse human rights challenges. Refugees must be granted admission possibilities as well as access to fair asylum procedures. Integration measures for migrants and criteria for gaining citizenship have to be critically assessed against the prohibition of discrimination. All human beings staying within a country including those who do not possess a valid residence permit must have the possibility to exercise their human rights, such as to education or to health care. During the last decades, immigration led to cultural and religious plurality in many countries, including Germany. Thus freedom of religion is becoming a new domestic issue, for instance in regard to Muslim minorities and the headscarf controversy.