2. Why are there regional human rights treaties? Does this not contradict the universality of human rights?

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Do regional human rights treaties contradict the universality of human rights?

No. In fact, regional human rights treaties complement the international system of human rights protection of the United Nations. If they entail legally binding judicial enforcement mechanisms, they even offer a more effective way of protection human rights.

Core regional instruments are the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR) of 1950, the American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR) of 1969, and the African Charta on Human and Peoples’ Rights of 1981 (Banjul  Charter). The Arab Charter on Human Rights which entered into force in 2008 has not yet set up an Arab Court for Human Rights. In Asia, the Intergovernmental Human Rights Commission of ASEAN is currently working on the draft of a regionalhuman rights declaration. (Press Release of the AICHR

Like international human rights law, all regional human rights treaties refer to the universality of human rights and relate explicitly to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) of 1948. 

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